ROLES OF MANGROVE AS A PART OF COASTAL MANAGEMENT IN INDONESIA
Department of Marine Sciences, Diponegoro University,
Tembalang, Semarang 50275 INDONESIA
As an archipelagic country with more than 17.000 islands Indonesia has several coastal ecosystem such as bay, lagoon, delta, estuary, sandbar ecosystems in which geomorphologicaly has different characteristics. In term of the organisms which dominated the ecosystem there are mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs which in some circumstances has been known as having complex mutual connectivity in between.
It is no doubt that Indonesia with total mangrove area of about 3.5 million hectars (2009) is the largest mangrove area in the world. The uncomparable adaptation, multifacet important functions and mostly its threatened condition of mangrove were only few reasons why their conservation is badly needed in Indonesia. No such type of vegetation has morphological and physiological adaptation like mangrove which grow on soft, saline and sometimes anoxic sediment. Integrated mangrove physical, ecological and economical functions also can not be comparably replaced by other ecosystems. However, its uncontroled economical use of the mangroves such as ilegal logging, land conversion, and reclamation in most places leads to their degradadation. In other places it is also recorded that some natural mangrove mass killing was happen due to sudden inundation or sedimentation, which unfortunately the techniques was copied by some iresponsible person to kill mangrove in some areas. In some cases conflict of interest between stakeholders were also damaging mangrove. Lack of coordination between stakeholders and different perception or needs between two or more adjacent administration area were two among many other reasons causing the conflict.
There are two principal concept on mangrove conservation namely rehabilitation and protection. Rehabilitation is an action needed to rehabilitate degraded mangrove area on purpose to revitalised its function, while protection normally applied for mangrove which relatively in good condition to be gazetted as protected area. There are steps should be followed for succesful rehabilation process such as planing, assessment, program socialization, planting, monitoring and evaluation, and publication. Land ecological and physical condition, sylviculture, financial, labour, social and cultural aspects should also be considered when planing rehabilitation.
Based on its multifacet functions it is recommended that ecological rehabilitation using soft structure (vegetation) should be prioritized, however there are several steps and aspects should be conducted prior to the success of the rehabilation. Site-Species specification should also be considered carefully. Local species, either major, minor or mangrove association, should be prioritized but please learn comprehensivelly the species characters before its nominated as the best plant choice available. In some cases inovation strategy should be chased, and natural facts could be the source of inspiration. In term that hard structure is the only option for rehabilitation, basic knowledge of each methodology should be learned carefully before its application. Government mentoring on such mangrove rehabilitation should always be conducted considering that generation always changing and as a matter in fact most best practices is not properly absorb and restored in the community level. In case that mangrove area is the only choice to live then try to live naturally among the mangroves and do not much change the habitat. Sustainable economic use of mangrove should be proporsionally promoted to rise the awarenes without leaving the fact that mangrove management is a part of global coastal management, and it should be integrally conducted by all stakeholders.